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Saturday, March 27, 2010

Pope John Paul Józef Wojtyła Essay Biography

I. Early Life
The Pope John Paul II was born Karol Józef Wojtyła, before his papacy in October 1978 .He was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, a small city 50 kilometers from Krakow, on May 18, 1920. Karol Józef Wojtyła was then the youngest of the three children born to Karol Wojtyła and Emilia Kaczorowska. His mother died in 1929 while Edmund, his eldest brother who was a doctor, died in 1932 and his father who was a non-commissioned army officer died in 1941. A sister, Olga, had died before he was born.

Fr. Franciszek Zak baptized Karol Józef Wojtyła on The 20th of June in 1920 in the parish church of Wadowice. He was nine (9) years old when he took his First Holy Communion and was a confirmed Catholic at the age of eighteen at eighteen (18). “Upon graduation from Marcin Wadowita high school in Wadowice, he enrolled in Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938 and in a school for drama.” (Short Biography, 2005) A year after, the university was closed by the Nazi forces. The young Karol instead had to work in a quarry from 1940 until 1944 and after in the factory of chemicals, Solvay, to earn his living and to keep away from being deported to Germany.

Karol was always aware of his religious callings, and it was in 1942 when he started courses of becoming a priest in the clandestine seminary of Krakow, managed by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, the archbishop of Krakow at that time. “At the same time, Karol Wojtyła was one of the pioneers of the "Rhapsodic Theatre," also clandestine.” (Short Biography, 2005)
II. Post World War II Life with the Church

Karol Józef Wojtyła pursued his studies in the major seminary of Krakow when it had reopened after the Second World War. At the same time he was a faculty of theology of the Jagiellonian University. It was in 1946, at the first day of November when he was ordained to the priesthood in Krakow. Archbishop Sapieha did the honor to ordain him. Thereafter, the same cardinal sent Father Karol Wojtyła to Rome to work under the direction of the French Dominican, Garrigou-Lagrange
It was in 1948 when Father Wojtyła finished his doctorate in theology having a thesis on the “subject of faith in the works of St. John of the Cross (Doctrina de fide apud Sanctum Ioannem a Cruce)”. (Short Biography, 2005). Even then, he was a good catholic and a person because that time after having his doctorate degree, while he was on vacations, he applied his pastoral ministry among the Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and Holland. During the same year he returned to his home country and became a vicar of many parishes in Krakow as well as chaplain to young students in the university and these roles and activities lasted until 1951.

Beginning 1951 he pursued his studies again to widen his knowledge on philosophy and theology and two years after he was to defend a thesis on "evaluation of the possibility of founding a Catholic ethic on the ethical system of Max Scheler at Lublin Catholic University.” (Short Biography, 2005) After this event he became a professor teaching about moral theology and social ethics in the key seminary of Krakow as served as a Faculty of Theology of at the same time. He was appointed as a titular bishop of Ombi on the 4th of July in 1958. The Pope Pius XII also appointed him as an auxiliary of Krakow on that same moment. On the 28th of September of the same year he was consecrated as a bishop by Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak in Wawel Cathedral located in Krakow.

Bishop Wojtyła had a lot of meaningful religious activities before he became the pope in October 1978. Among these are the publication of his dissertation in 1960, "Evaluation of the Possibility of Constructing a Christian Ethic based on the System of Max Scheler” and the publication of "Love and Responsibility"; and in 1965 he made his Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops, containing the famous words "We forgive and ask forgiveness" (Pre-Pontificate, 2005)

III. And He Became the Pope John Paul II
It was October 16, 1978 when Cardinal Karol Wojtyła was elected successor to Pope John Paul I, the 264th Pope of the Catholic Church and takes the name John Paul II. (Pontificate, 2005) During his election as the pope, “there were three surprises: that the new pope should be so young -- 58; that he should be a non-Italian; and that he should come from an Eastern European country. Though there has been noticeably less talk about the Holy Spirit, once again the cardinals have said how satisfied they are with their choice.” (Hebblethwaite 3)

During his first year in the papal seat in 1978, he made numerous and notable activities and encouragement to the whole Catholic world. Among these are the Urbi et Orbi radio message, John Paul II's historic embrace of Cardinal Wyszyński, the visits to the Shrine of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Mentorella, Rome and to Assisi to venerate the tomb of St. Francis, patron of Italy, and to the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva to venerate the tomb of St. Catherine, patroness of Italy.

The preceding year of his papacy and the years after it, Pope John Paul II simply inspired the whole Catholic community with his leadership. In 1979, the Pope accepted the request made by Argentina and Chile for the Holy See’s mediation in solving the controversy that was on going between the two nations. He also made the Pastoral Visit to Santo Domingo in Dominican Republic, to Mexico for the Third General Conference of the Latin American Bishops and the Bahamas on January 25th to February 1st 1979 for his 1st Apostolic Voyage. (Pontificate, 2005) This voyage was succeeded by the second, third and fourth, all happening in the same year, 1979. These were the visits or voyages to Poland in June, in Ireland, the U.N. and the United States of America in September and in Turkey in November.

During his voyage to his homeland, he had a very specific message to his countrymen. “The pope's letter on the purpose of his visit, in which he stressed that he hoped to serve "the unity of the Poles." (Hebblethwaite 3)

During the 1980s, among the outstanding activities of Pope John Paul II involve Pastoral Voyages to Zaire, Republic of Congo, Kenya, Ghana, Upper Volta and Ivory Coast, France, Brazil, and West Germany. His pastoral visit to Naples, Potenza, Balvano and Avellino was made after the earthquake. The apostolic voyages, which obviously result to greater acceptance among the Catholics of the respective visited nations, also serve as reminders to each and every one to restore their faith and be better followers of God. The pope never missed in reinstating this message anywhere he visits. At the year 1980 was ending the pope made his Apostolic Letter Egregiae virtutis in which he proclaimed Sts. Cyril and Methodius, together with St. Benedict, Patrons of Europe.

As the leader, teacher and model of millions of Catholic followers, John Paul II made and performed his papal responsibilities dutifully. The Pope's 1988 encyclical, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, which is about social justice threading a middle ground between the sides of capitalists and socialists and putting arguments on both economic developments and placing the needs of those millions of poors over the wants of the selected wealthy. This Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is in fact believed to be “one of his most substantial documents.” (John Paul II)

A new catechism was approved by Pope John Paul II in 1992. This contained comprehensive statements of devotion meant to unify the entire Catholic It was in October of this year when the Pope was able to publish a large encyclical on moral issues fairly “inspired by the pedophilia or the sexual attraction of adults to children crisis” (John Paul II) that was rampant in the United States. It was called Veritatis Splendor or The Resplendence of Truth.

In 1994 the Pope was with the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops on the theme:” The Church in Africa and Her Evangelizing Mission Towards the Year 2000: 'You Shall Be My Witnesses'. On that same year however, on the month of April the Pope had an accidental fall on the evening of the 28th causing a fracture on his right femur. Thereafter the Holy Father recovered at the Gemelli Polyclinic Hospital and undergone an operation and was hospitalized until the 27th of May. (Pontificate, 2005)

Fulfilling the promise of his apostolic letter Tertio Millennio adveniente (As the Third Millennium Draws Near, 1994 the pope entered the year 2000, which he greeted by a proclamation of this year as the year of the Great Jubilee. The Pope carried on this year “with a series of epoch-making activities calling for dialogue and brotherhood among the faiths.” (Pope John Paul) In February of the new millennium, John Paul II was the first pope to make a visit to Egypt, where he celebrated a mass in Cairo, stirring on discrimination against Christians in Egypt and other countries of Africa.

On March 12, 2000, the pope also asked for forgiveness for many of the Catholic Church's past sins, such as its treatment of Jews, heretics, women, and native peoples. “This was believed to be the first time in the history of the Catholic Church that one of its leaders sought such a sweeping pardon.” (John Paul II Biography)

In the beginning of 2004, the Pope made his appeal to everyone regarding World Peace. “All of you, hear the humble appeal of the Successor of Peter who cries out: today too, at the beginning of the New Year 2004, peace remains possible. And if peace is possible, it is also a duty!”(John Paul II, 2004)

A year before his death, Pope John Paul II was conferred the International Charlemagne Prize, a prestigious award given annually by the city of Aachen, Germany, in recognition “of the Pope’s personal commitment, and that of the Holy See, in favor of unity among the peoples of Europe on the basis of the values rooted in the common human nature and efficaciously promoted by Christianity” (Pontificate, 2005)

On February, at least a month before his death the Memory and Identity was published. This book was all about the Pope John Paul II, his life, and his legacy to the world. With his great contribution to the Catholic Church and in humanity in general, Pope John Paul II died in Vatican on April 2, 2005 at 9:37 in the evening. He was a great pope, leader, teacher and a person who gave much inspiration and teachings to his followers.

Works Cited
Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John Paul II and the Church. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward,
1995. Questia. 21 May 2008 .

“John Paul II Biography.” Notable Biographies. 21 May 2008. .

John Paul II. An Ever Timely Commitment: Teaching Peace. Vatican, 2004. 20 May 2008. <>.

“Pontificate: His Holiness John Paul II.” Holy See Press Office. 30 June 2005. 20 May 2008. .

“Pope John Paul II the Great”. Help Fellowship Organization. 21 May 2008. .

“Pre-Pontificate: His Holiness John Paul II.” Holy See Press Office. 30 June 2005. 21 May 2008. .

“Short Biography: His Holiness John Paul II.” Holy See Press Office. 30 June 2005. 21 May 2008..

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Holding Ground: The rebirth of Dudley Street Case Study

Instruction: Please answer the three questions below. Do not write an introduction. Go straight to answering the questions….. Write in 3rd person. Article to follow soon...

Case Study on the movie Holding Ground: The rebirth of Dudley Street

1. What are the community economic systems present in the case? (Give specific examples)

2.Define social action and how is it utilized in this case? (give definition then gives specific examples)

3.Discuss the difference between advocacy and organizing and identify its uses in this case?.

Strategic Plan HotDog Stand Business Plan

I.Background - Hotdogs have become part of the American life and American food system. Hot dogs can either be in a roll with cheese, mayonnaise and mustard or it is eaten alone, it is an acceptable food for the busy and demanding American life. -- This paper is a plan of a little chain of hotdog stands that has a vision of expanding them if the few initial stands prove to be of potential profit in the future. Five stands will be a starting ground for this Entrepreneurial move selling hotdogs in crowded and busy places all over the city. It has the aim to satisfy the hungry stomachs of many individuals each day who do not have the luxury of time to sit back and relax while eating. Hot Doggies on Your Way

Hot Doggies is the planned name of the hot dog chain. It would be a single proprietorship and entrepreneurial business under this paper’s author name. It is however simply referred to as “Hot Doggies” or “the Chain” hereinafter.

II. The Industry and the Hot Doggies
Hot dog stand and hot dog as a food is a profitable source of income in the United States. It even surpassed McDonalds in terms of location to buy.
Some 1,800 hot dog stands serve Chicago and the suburbs, according to Peter Sload, spokesman for Vienna Beef, the sausage maker that supplies about 85 percent of them. That's more than all the McDonald's, Wendy's and Burger King outlets here combined. (Zeldes, 2006, p. 32)

With a promising market and industry for hot dog stands and hot dog meals/food, Hot Doggies is an encouraging take off for an entrepreneur.

III. The External Environment
Competitors will be the hardest hurdle to the success of Hot Doggies. However, as soon as the business can establish its name and strategic locations profits will simply flow and possible expansions and franchising will come their way.
Additionally, the various applicable laws and regulations of the state will also be one thing that would be considered externally as these are very important in determining where to place the stands in order to avoid penalties but at the same time, the sales would not be badly affected.

The eagerness and abilities of the five vendors to be hired would be another big external (as well as internal) factor. Externally, it would be their own respective styles and techniques that would determine the amount of sales that they would make. It would be a combination of their own charisma, friendliness to customers and sales techniques. This is the reason why they are paid on both a fixed rate plus a certain commission upon reaching a quota for their sales.
Warning and Friendly Reminder: Plagiarism is a crime. This essay is here to give you an idea or guide you, not to be copied by you. You can look at the references and Works cited provided by this free academic essay and from that you can create your own. Be a smart student,be honest: look for free academic essays anywhere in the web or the Internet but don’t forget to make your own. There are so many free essays online as guides but please do your own. You can also utilize free plagiarism checkers available online.
IV.The Internal Environment
Since Hot Doggies is just starting and it is owned and managed by the owner (although vendors are required), the total care and control would be up to the owner. This means the policies will be solely at his/her discretion as well as other matters related to the business.

As mentioned, the vendors are another part of the Internal factor. They are partly controlled by the owner of the business and the motivations, rewards and penalty policies of the owner would affect the selling process of each hired vendor. Since it is singularly owned and it is only starting up, the "company's (stands’) personnel objectives, policies, and procedures" (Megginson, 1972, p. 58) which are classified as internal factors will be dealt by the owner of Hot Doggies.

V.Customer Demographics and Customer Profile
Customers range from busy students and young professionals who are always in the run. It does not exclude anyone however who would like to have their own hot doggies when their stomachs feel a little sting of hunger or their cravings for hotdog strikes.

As previously mentioned, busy streets near the schools and offices are the initial target of the stands but proper licenses must be applied first before operations can start. A contract with a certain school can be considered if it would prove advantageous and profitable. The target customers are lower to middle class Americans who are more probable buyers of the products and who can dare to eat anywhere, either sitting, standing or walking.

VI.Objectives and Strategic Goals
The Business aims the following objectives for the first year of operations:
a.Set up the business and gain a general notion as to how successful it can be;
b.Reach targeted level of sales and net income and to be able to proceed to the next decision.
c.If the targeted income and rate of return is acceptable, additional stands will be added and spread the following year together with an addition of franchising rights that may be obtained using the “Hot Doggies” trademark

d.If the targeted level of sales, income and return are not reached, the number of stands remain while another set of strategies would be employed in order to realize more profits with a continuous aim to reach the targeted sales, income and return.

VII.Forecasted Balance Sheet and Income Statements
a.Balance Sheet (1-year of operation)

Simple as the hot dog stand as the business may sound and the investment may not be that big, a careful peek through as to its earnings capability must be done before it would be let out in the market. Forecasting the possible earnings that the five stands of Hot Doggies would not hurt the owner even with the use of only an estimated amounts for the items needed based on the current market.

The following are the forecasted balance sheet of the business for one year of operation together with a tw0-year of operation forecasts for its income statements. The date that the business would start is January 2 of 2009.

Hot Doggies
Balance Sheet
December 31, 2009

balance sheet of a hot dog stand businessa.1st and 2nd years of Forecasted Income Statement

Hot Doggies
Income Statement
For the Years Ended December 31, 2009 and 2010

hot dog stand strategic plan income statement
Important Notations:
The raw materials (hot dogs) are estimated to be 20% of the selling price.
Majority of the expense goes to the vendors
There is an estimated general annual increase of 10% both in sales and raw materials prices while a 5% increase in the salaries and commissions of vendors.
The Sales Discounts is comprised of discounts on offers as well as freebies and discounts given to loyal and frequent or bulk buyers.
The targeted Income for the first year is $50,000 to continue and expand the business and plan for the franchising activity. If the forecasts are met, the plan would push through.
The Income is before taxes that the government levies (aside from basic municipal or stand taxes and licenses) to the income. This means that the amount presented will still be greatly reduced by the amount of taxes.

Instructions for this Essay:
The “heart” of a Strategic Plan (or a full blown Business Plan, for that matter) is probably the budget for that plan. While creating a budget for no purpose (no context) is a stale exercise, we also don’t have time to prepare a realistic Strategic Plan, so we will scale down expectations and require but a mock attempt. Please see Joe’s Barbecue (p. 42-45) in the Dickey text for an example.

I want you to create a Strategic Plan. If you can do this for your current employment, that would be a fine context. Or pretend you are an entrepreneur and intend to start a business, so see this as the requirement to prepare a modest “Business Plan.” Make this entrepreneurial endeavor very simple. J Almost a “lemonade stand” type of enterprise. Keep it simple.

With either approach, the purpose of the “plan” is to provide context for the development of the budget and financial statements needed to support the specific plan.

The Plan needs to include at least:

1. nature of industry and product/service
2. analysis of “external” environment
3. analysis of “internal” environment
4. description of customer demographics and competitive advantage
5. indication of plan’s objective(s)
6. inclusion of financial documents
- current Balance Sheet
- estimated Balance Sheet 1 year hence
- estimated Income Statement 1 year hence
- estimated Income Statement 2 years hence

Be sure to indicate the rationale for your financial estimates.
Be careful not to plagiarize; write in your own words, although a few quotations are acceptable Grammar matters, so watch your punctuation, sentence structure, paragraph development, spelling, etc.

There needs to be a title page, and a “Table of Contents” page. So, that’s two pages. There needs to be 4 financial documents, i.e. 2 Balance Sheets and 2 Income Statements. Now we are up to 6 pages. So the remaining 4 pages or so will regard narrative paragraphs about the various subtopics noted in #1 - #5 above.