Friday, September 18, 2009
Plagiarism, as defined in the 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, as the "use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work." Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination.Authors and writers, no matter how professional they are, may misuse sources at certain times in their profession by failing to properly acknowledge these sources. When writing a paper, if a writer/author presents a material, whether directly or otherwise, taken from the work of someone else and do not acknowledge such use of material or idea, plagiarism is already in the air: it is in the work!
NOT plagiarizing someone else's work means NOT using either the words or the ideas of another writer without clearly showing whose original work it is/they are and stating or citing exactly where they come from.
The word plagiarism derives from the Latin word, which means “kidnapping”. In the olden times plagiarii were pirates that sometimes "kidnapped" or stole children. As stated earlier, in the introductory paragraph, plagiarism in academic media signifies the purposeful or accidental unaccredited use of the source material by other writers.
Take note that intentional plagiarism is simply dishonest, and it is theft, thus unacceptable and unethical. It is a form of cheating, and it will be heavily penalized. Unintentional plagiarism which is caused by carelessness and irresponsible review of work at hand or occurs due to the lack of understanding of the topic of work, is equally unacceptable and unethical.
Tuesday, September 15, 2009
Are “great men” really that important? Before this question can be answered, notice that the adjective “great” (for the men) needs to be defined first. Often, this phrase (great men) is viewed by the majority as men (but does not exclude women) of achievements, power, money, fame or a combination of the mentioned factors. This means that Napoleon the Great and Einstein are both great men as they “were” both great in a thing or many things, powerful and full of achievements during their existence. It also makes Bill Gates and Joanne Kathleen Rowling great man and woman for their power, achievements, wealth and fame, among others.
It might be true that the above mentioned personalities were at the right place at the right time but the majority of their efforts and factors causing their “greatness” still came from their side and contribution. As one great man of war and history and as a fabulous author, this paper focuses on Bonaparte and Rowling, respectively, as persons who did not simply put themselves in the right place at the right time to get what they are worth for and what they deserve but as persons who made their way through their respective titles and desert. Bonaparte was even considered as "the most splendid genius that has appeared on earth." (Andrews, 1939, p. 3: Acton, 1887, p. 603) It should be noted that Napoleon the Great did not sit to achieve his title. From his childhood, he seemed to have been an ambitious boy already, as he said it himself.
I was self-willed and obstinate, nothing awed me, nothing disconcerted me. I was quarrelsome, exasperating; I feared no one. I gave a blow here and scratch there. Everyone was afraid of me. My brother Joseph was the one with whom I had the most to do; he was beaten, bitten, scolded; I complained that he did not get over it soon enough." (Fournier, 1903, p. 5: Napoleon Bonaparte)Thus, with a little bit of ambition, perseverance and hard-work, Napoleon could not have been as Great as he was and he is (still).
On the other hand, Harry Potter’s author is another person to be looked up at. Her being a woman did not stop her from succeeding or attaining the status of being "the most successful novelist in the world" (Stephen, 1999, p. 24) in 1999.
Rowling made hard works to succeed and did not wait fame to strike her. She had her own failures and frustrations as a regular person, too far from being great, yet, she never stopped to be inspired to continue her Harry Potter novels. Clearly, and again, it is not only being at the right place at the right time to succeed and be “great”. A big deal of effort and perseverance as well as discipline and unmarred motivation must be present. Thus, great men are important, not because of the fact that they are great, famous, powerful and wealthy but because of the inspirations and lessons they give to common individuals on how they have achieved their greatness.
Americans love rag –to-riches myths, of course. Rowling is not even Scottish, but a middle-class Chipping Sodbury girl who read French at Exeter University before working for Amnesty International; after her marriage to Portuguese journalist ended she stayed with her sister in Edinburgh, went on social security and started the first Potter book. To the average middle-class American, hearing how somebody goes from “welfare” to overnight millions is vindication of the notion that hard work is all that is required for success… (Stephen, 1999, p24)
Sunday, September 13, 2009
Looking at the cartoon presented, the following can be noted:
1) symbolism is clear. The special interest groups have garnered implied power courtesy of the "support" they have done to make political candidates win. This can be seen as represented by the various groups' cars taking over the parking space alloted to congressmen. Looking at the details, the cars respective models identify the group which can have better power because of greater monetary machinery. In this case, the limousine of the Big Business group.
2. A politically aware reader can see the author's vision clearly. The details are clear and the meaning is very understandable. However, some fine details and meanings may be missed out by readers who are not politically inclined and not keen to details. The representation of the car models are easy to be missed out but the dollar signs are very clear and the notion of power of the various groups in congress is also very clear.
3. The author of the cartoon wants to depict the fact that congress' or government bodies' decisions, are swayed by those who have supported them heavily. There is no impartiality and independence because of the inherent expectations the special interest groups have had when they supported a candidate. This means that whoever has greater monetary machinery has greater power.
4. Generally speaking, political cartoons are an interesting way to represent the painful fact and can catch the readers' attention at a glance. Although these cartoons can give information to the general public, the fact that some fine details can be missed out by some readers, and the fact that they are "cartoons", they cannot be that "serious" source of information for the general public. They can be a "starting point" to grasp the real serious information.
Deis, Robert, and Larry Bauman. "How a Special Interest Tried to Change Our Form of Governance." Public Management Feb. 1999: 12+.
Saturday, September 12, 2009
Please also take note that Free Academic Essays is for everyone. Tell your friends and buddies if you find something for them. Moreover, please take note that this list here, in tis page, is only for Accounting. The list of planned essaus for other topics are listed in other pages.
Below is the list of accounting and finance or business related topics the author plans to write about and provide everyone a free essay or gratis essay. Feel free to grab or make it as reference. And here is the rest of it.
1. Accounting Principles and Standards
Support arguments for the following problem with sources of GAAP (FASB standards):
A firm implements a cash bonus program. Its terms provide for a one time cash bonus to be paid to the employee upon the completion of five years of continious employment. The amount of each bonus will be the sum of ten percent of the salary paid in each of the five years of employment.
Audie is the first employee to be hired under the new bonus plan. His first years salary is to be $25,000. His salary will be about $35,000 in the 5th year and will average about $30,000 over the five year period.
HOW SHOULD THE FIRM RECOGNIZE THE BONUS TO AUDIE?
Friday, September 11, 2009
Assessing the campus climate involves various examination of facts. These facts involve, but are not limited to, the above factors mentioned that compose the campus. Aside from students alone, faculty and staff of the educational institution where the campus is, are also responsible in making the campus environment better.
II. The Campus Climate
According to the Campus Climate Network Group, campus climate involves “behaviors within a workplace or learning environment, ranging from subtle to cumulative to dramatic, that can influence whether an individual feels personally safe, listened to, valued, and treated fairly and with respect.” Statistics-wise the climate in the campus is getting more and more varied, even in terms of ethnic orientation alone.
"The enrollment of minority students in higher education has increased over the past 30 years" (Fischer, 2007) From 1976 to 2000, the number of Black students enrolled in degree-granting institutions rose 14.9%, while Hispanic enrollment increased by 25.4% (Fischer, 2007: National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2002)
The major stakeholders of things related to campus climate are the students. Secondary are the faculty and staff of the institution and the institution itself. And campus climate gives a “sense of community, or the lack of it, is expressed and transmitted in many small events, in feelings about the attitudes exemplified in the minutiae of campus life and in perceptions about the fairness and supportiveness of others' behavior (Kramer & Weiner, 1994, p. 71). This can be viewed as both positive and negative for the students’ perspective. It is positive in a way that students are exposed in diversity of life and in the process, they are learning to deal with it. It can be negative however, when some students got traumatized with the effect of the treatments their fellow peers and students cast towards them and the feeling of unbelongingness and discrimination prevails.
III. Various Needs of Some Students
Ethnic, gender and sexual orientations are among the major factors affecting the campus climate. To students with these mentioned orientations, they have some particular needs during their campus life. In fact, there are criss-crossing results with regards to perspectives and opinions among various groups in the campus. Religion, for example, does not only discriminate other religions but it "was also a discriminating demographic variable for heterosexual students."(Waldo, 1998)
The institutions themselves, from educational institutions to the law making bodies have roles to play themselves in improving the entire situation with regards to campus climate. It is because of findings in some studies, according to Kameen and Justiz, (1988, p. 50), that there is “strong evidence that assessment programs which rely on standardized tests as sole measures of student ability, that "label" or "exclude" rather than assist students to acquire the necessary skills to complete college successfully, that do not support the teaching and learning process, and that are otherwise insensitive to bias will result in discrimination toward minority students.”
Although it is the student body themselves who make the big action, the role of community, the institution and those involved in drafting laws and rules for education cannot be put out in giving improvements to current status of various discriminated groups in campus.
IV. What To Do?
It may not be obvious as it seems but students have power in campus. It is their own world and they can have control over it if want to. No matter how the faculty and the educational institution itself propel students to abide to some rules or make a certain environment in the campus, it is still not effective if students would not have willing hearts and open minds as to how the things should go in the campus. This means that the campus climate is greatly influenced by students themselves, who are also the main stakeholders of whatever kind of campus climate they have.
Students who are knowledgeable enough and with broad minds have ease and no difficulty in adapting to various orientations in the campus. The best way for students to make the campus climate better, is to be receptive and be open to ideas. This sounds easier said than practiced though. However, there are organizations in campus that make things easier. This means that if a minority group or a certain race or ethnicity has an organization in school, this organization, since it is considered as a representative of the group, must network with each other. This means that one ethnic organization must build a healthy relationship with another ethnic organization. The members would then understand why it is being done and the members of the two organizations would have harmonious relationships as well when they see that the organizations themselves are also tied up.
Moreover, a healthy and unbiased information dissemination would also not hurt the organization or the entire group of students from minority or ethnic races. This involves combating the negative issues thrown upon them in a manner that does not hurt or insult other groups. A better and positive attitudes among students from this group of these groups are therefore encouraged. This means that friendliness to other races or ethnic groups in the campus are encouraged and any hostility is discouraged. Why? It is very important to note that "the racially intolerant campus climate has many consequences." (Marcus, Mullins, Brackett, Tang, Allen & Pruett, 2003) And sad to say, most of the consequences are actually negative to both sides of the coin. No one really benefits that much from discriminating others aside from hatred, limited set of friends and acquaintances and alienation – this is true even in the part of the one who discriminates. This is true be it regarding any orientation: religious, sexual, gender, income, age, ethnicity or anything else.
Since the greater distinction is between the whites and the minorities in the campus, the efforts must come from both directions as to the harmonization of relationships among students. And how? It was previously mentioned that organizations are a great help.
Campus climate is a complicated thing to deal with. Factors affecting the climate and the environment in the campus are so diverse that they are not easy to control. Actions however may be made in order to improve the climate and diminish difference among students. The best way to improve the campus climate is for the students themselves to act. The students are the main stakeholders of the happenings in the campus and they have the power to act on things and events or implement a culture that would improve the lives of most, if not all, of them in the campus setting.
Although the faculty and staff in the campus has roles too, the decision as to what climate be set in the campus are still reliant to the students. In this manner, only students, with the assistance of the institution through its governing rules, as well as the support of the faculty and staff of the educational institution, can make their campus experience a better one.
Fischer, M. J. (2007). Settling into Campus Life: Differences by Race/ethnicity in College Involvement and Outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125+.
Wednesday, September 9, 2009
Cornerstone distributing company, a single proprietary business of Mr. Owner completed the following merchandising transactions in the month of July 2008, its first month of operation.
In the morning of July 1st , Mr. Owner made a cash deposit of $9,000 for the business capital. On the same day, there was a purchased merchandise on account from DAKOTA SUPPLY cO, $6900 , TERMS /0 , N/30.
In the afternoon of July first, a supplies amounting to $600 was purchased on cash.
July 4th sold merchandise on account $5500 , FOB destination , terms 1/10, , n/30. the cost of the merchandise sold was $4100.
July 5 $240 freight on July 4 sale
Click HERE for the Tabular Answers Please be aware with the labels in the T-Account, they are difficult to be aligned using Blogger...sorry...
July 6 received credit from dakota supply co merchandise returned $500
July 11 paid dakota supply co in full less discount
July 13 received collections in full , less discounts from customers billed om July4th
July 14 purchased merchandise for cash $3800
July16 received refund from supplier for returned goods on cash ourchase of July 14 $500
July 18 purchased merchandise from skywalker distributors $4500, FOB shipping point terms 2/10, n/30
paid freight on July 8 purchase $100
July23 sold merchandise for cash $6400 , the merchandise sold had a cost of $5,120
July 26 purchase merchandise for cash $2,300
July 29 made refunds to cash customers for defective merchandise $90. the returned merchandise has a scrap value of $30
July30 sold merchandise on account $3700 terms n/30 the cost of the merchandise sold was $2800
a. The supplies at the end of the month amounted to $200
b. Portion of the 2-month advance rental payments of $1,000 was consumed.
When Sigmund Freud was seven years old, he was soiling the chair with a dirty hand while he was promising his mother that he would be a great man. In fact, it was a fulfilled promise. Aside from this incident, there were other six incidents that had made indications what Sigmund Freud would be. Indeed, Freud had become a man of history and psychology as well as of philosophy and this person has made great contributions to humanity.
As a short summary of his life, Freud was medical student from 1873 to 1881; had a medical career from 1881 to 1885; engaged/betrothed from 1882 to the year of his marriage in 1886. It was after his engagement/betrothal to marry when Freud became interested in psychopathology.
B. Notable Ideas of Sigmund Freud
a. Little Hans Puzzle
It was in 1909 when Freud published the "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five Year Old Boy." It was the paper for the case that has become known as the case of "little Hans." The full history of the case is laid out in detail on tat published paper and it furnishes the psychological community (and the whole scientific world) the invaluable chance of checking his diagnosis against the evidence. On that same year Freud was already equipped with the studies and knowledge on personality. The histologist and brain anatomist had given way to the physical therapist, the hypnotist, the free associationist and finally the psycho-analyst.
b. Do Our Minds Have Divisions?
Another work of Freud that is worth noting is the “Interpretation of Dreams”. In this particular work, Freud noted that in one’s mentality exist three various processes. These are the “the Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious” (Stoodley, 1959, p. 38). As Freus sees it, dreams are the fulfillment of the wishes. The Conscious process wishes something and the Preconscious makes another wish that is being rejected and unacceptable to the Conscious causing the wishes to be unsatisfied. The Unconscious has the third wish, which is more on childhood related desires. More elaborations on the Unconscious were made by Freud and became one of his very notable works.
c. The Unconscious Mind
Freud theorized that in order to understand the Conscious mind, its attitudes and thoughts, the Unconscious must be understood first. In fact, according to Dr. Ernest Jones, "Freud's greatest contribution to science … was his conception of an unconscious mind." (MacIntyre, 2004, p. 47)
The Unconscious part is the domain of the mind that which cannot thus be brought into consciousness. It “is the area of the primary process” (MacIntyre, 2004, p. 65) and it is “the background link between infancy and adult life” (MacIntyre), and according to Freud, the instructive contrast for an understanding of the unconscious is that between the ego and the repressed.
d. Ego, Superego and Id
As mentioned in the preceding section, the study of the Unconscious was one of the major focus of Freud’s studies and theories. Another extension, or branch or related study regarding the Unconscious was Freud’s presentation of the Id, Ego and Superego idea. "The ego represents what we call reason and sanity, in contrast to the id which contains the passions." (Freud, 1927, p. 30)
On the other hand, the superego is something more superior (in quality) and has a role to play in person’s self esteem. Or, a role to play in Mesopotamian sex omens: "if a man has a woman grasp his penis he is impure and no god will accept his prayer." The rules of good behaviour and etiquette imposed by society appear to forbid such actions, which may be pleasurable but are not allowed. (Geller, 1997) This is why repression exists.
e. The Libido Factor and Instinct
According to Freud, “we can understand in the first place nothing but the psychic representative of the continually flowing inner somatic source of stimulation which is to be distinguished from a 'stimulus' which comes from combined external excitations.” It is about instinct. With this, Freud had tentatively presumed that various bodily organs may be the source of sexual stimulation.
He assumed that ". . . from the bodily organs two kinds of excitation arise which are founded upon differences of a chemical nature. One of these forms of overstimulation can be designated as specifically sexual, and the concerned organ, an erogenous zone, while the sexual element emanating from it is a partial impulse." 3 The sexual instinct thus shows a similarity with other instincts and also an important difference. The similarity is in the fact that the sexual instinct, like hunger and thirst, is based on a body state, a special chemism. (Stoodley, 1959, p. 48)
Within the same observation, Freud made a differentiation between somatic process and instinct. For Freud, instinct is something that is being processed by the mind.
The aforementioned are some of the ideas that Freud have presented. They are not mutually exclusive nor they are the total and final list of Freud’s ideas and works. Other works and ideas of Sigmund Freud involve Studies on Hysteria, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious, Totem and Taboo and many more.
C. Freud’s Theories and Legacies
a. On Psychoanalysis
It is indeed true that no one can impress everyone. In many books, and writings, many critics and questioning articles are thrown upon Sigmund Freud and his ideas. In the field of Psychotherapy however, Freud has made an impact with his ideas and theories. Psychotherapy involves interaction (relational and interpersonal) between the therapist and the patient.
Why and how is Freud connected with the psychotherapy? It is because Freud, as previously discussed, has recognized the unconscious wellsprings of human motivation —“an insight that has shaped education, politics, business, our attitudes toward child rearing, our understanding of history, and literary criticism.” (Basch, 1988, p. 3) Psychoanalysis, as Freud used the term and as it is still used today, according to Basch, refers to a research method into human motivation, to a particular form of intensive psychotherapy, and to his proposed general theory of mental functioning.
b. Impact on Philosophy
French philosophers are among the greatly influenced individuals with Freud’s works. The idea of empathy and unconscious state of mind are some concepts that are highly regarded in the philosophical world. Because Freud’s ideas involve religion and human behavior, his works are being a challenge to some philosophical ideas such as the enlightenment model of rational agency, a major component of the modern philosophical ideas.
Other factors that made Freud a known man in philosophy are his prior lectures regarding science and philosophy.
The life and works and most important contributions of Sigmund Freud might not have been laid out clearly and thoroughly in this paper but it is certain that Freud is an icon when psychology is being talked about. A person who knows what psychology is, most probably knows he person named Sigmund Freud as well.
In fact, as mentioned in the beginning of this paper, Freud has become so popular that even the common people use/mention the “Freudian Slip” term in their normal everyday life. A term that is "defined by one wag as being 'when you say one thing and mean a mother" ("FREUD versus FUHRER; Mind," 2007, p. 69)
The legacy of Freud is too strong and it remains in the humanity. His theories may be strongly questioned but it is undeniable that he set the fire out, kindled it out and made the psychology discipline burning.
Basch, M. F. (1988). Understanding Psychotherapy: The Science behind the Art. New York: Basic Books.
Freud, S. (1927). The Ego and the Id (Riviere, J., Trans.). London: L & Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press, and the Institute of Psycho-analysis.
The document will be sent to you after pay-off.